One’s contribution. Your assets provided for an endeavor or job. Unique, new capabilities. What is being brought is one’s ideas, finances or other ingredients to add to the end result. ‘Table’ refers to perhaps executives around a corporate table choosing who is promoted or hired, or it could refer to players around a poker table and you need to bring your assets to play.
“Before we hire him, I asked what he could bring to the table that would help our business succeed.” (Compare to Think outside the box or Bring to the party.)
“If we hire you just what would you bring to the table?”